Feed Laws

Large Wind Turbines

January 22, 2004
Paul Gipe

Wind Turbine Design: With Emphasis on Darrieus Concept by Ion Paraschivoiu

Ion Paraschivoiu is Aeronautical Chair Professor at École Polytechnique de Montréal and he brings to the cornucopia of new books on wind energy his specialty: Darrieus turbines.

Like David Spera in Wind Turbine Technology (1994), Paraschivoiu seeks to document for posterity the status of a technology. Spera chronicled the results from two decades of research by the U.S. Government and its contractors. Paraschivoiu does the same in the Canadian context, where the Darrieus or more specifically the phi-configuration Darrieus was reinvented by R. Rangi and P. South during the heyday of centrally-directed research in Canada. The Canadian wind program almost exclusively focused on Darrieus technology from the 1970s into the 1990s.

Paraschivoiu's book includes not only laboratory measurements on Darrieus performance, but also data from prototypes operating in the field in both Canada and the United States. His principle contribution, Paraschivoiu believes, is a design model for Darrieus turbines using double-multiple stream tubes.

As a proponent of Darrieus turbines Paraschivoiu argues that vertical-axis wind turbines are environmentally preferred to conventional horizontal-axis turbines--a contention that will surely be contested. He argues, for example, that VAWTs produce less noise than conventional turbines because they operate at lower tip-speed ratios. Similarly, VAWTs cause less electromagnetic interference than conventional turbines he says. Most contentious is his claim that medium-size VAWTs are aesthetically more acceptable than conventional turbines based on a 1987 opinion survey by Southern California Edison of reaction to a 500 kW DAF-InDal turbine at SCE's test site in the San Gorgonio Pass.

The strong point of Paraschivoiu's book is his emphasis on charting the results of actual tests. While there's more than enough theory for any hardened engineer, the book is chocked full of charts documenting the performance of a long line of experimental and some commercial Darrieus turbines.

The appendix also includes a useful list of web sites of wind organizations worldwide, something missing from the other new books on wind energy.

The book's only weakness is the lack of photographs, especially of Canadian turbines and of the more obscure experimental Darrieus turbines once developed in the Netherlands, France, Switzerland, and Germany; illustratons of which would be beneficial for future designers.

Wind Turbine Design is probably the definitive work on Darrieus technology.

Wind Turbine Design: With Emphasis on Darrieus Concept by Ion Paraschivoiu, ISBN: 2-553-00931-3, 18.5 cm x 23 cm (~7 x 9 inches), 590 pages, $145,00 CAN, $116.00 US, 2002. Available from École Polytechnique de Montréal,,


Table of Contents
Chapter 1

Wind Energy

Wind Definition and Characteristics

Wind Turbines

Wind Energy Applications

Benefits and Obstacles in Wind Energy Development

Overview of Wind Energy Development

Wind Energy Developed in the World

Chapter 2

State-of-the-Art of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

The Madaras Rotor Concept

Savonius Rotor

Drag-Driven Device

Lift-Driven Device


Vortex Modelling Cross-Wind Axis Machine

Aerodynamic Characteristics

Chapter 3

The Darrieus Wind-Turbine Concept


Geometry of the Darrieus Rotor

Chapter 4

Aerodynamic Performance Prediction Models

Single Streamtube Model

Multiple Streamtubes Model

Vortex Models

A High Speed Lifting Line Model for Darrieus Turbines

Local-Circulation Model

Chapter 5

Unsteady Aerodynamics CFD Models


Numerical Procedure

Turbulence Modelling

Results and Discussion

Conclusions and Recommendations

Chapter 6

Double-Multiple-Streamtube : A Practical Design Model

Double Actuator Disk Theory

Double Actuator Disk Momentum Theory

Blade Element Theory

Double-Multiple-Streamtube Model for Studying Darrieus Turbine

Aerodynamic Analysis of the Darrieus Wind Turbines Including Dynamic-Stall Effects

Darrieus Rotor Aerodynamics in Turbulent Wind

Comparison between DMS Model and Other Computer Codes

Blade Tip and Finite Aspect Ratio Effects on the Darrieus Rotor

Performance Predictions of VAWTs with SNL Airfoil Blades

CARDAAV Software

Chapter 7

Aerodynamic Loads and Performance Tests

Water Channel Experiments

Wind Tunnel Experiments

Field Test of Darrieus Wind Turbines

Commercial Prototype Wind Turbines

Measurements and Prediction of Aerodynamic Torques for a Darrieus Wind Turbine

Chapter 8

Innovative Aerodynamic Devices for Darrieus Rotor

Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) Airfoils and Tapered Blades


Vortex Generators

Pumped Spoiling

Toe-in-Angle Effects

Blade Camber

Blade Roughness (Soiling), Blade Icing and Parasite Drag Effects

Chapter 9

Future Trends Design of Darrieus Wind Turbine

Wind Turbine Design Parameters

Darrieus Wind Turbine Design

Comparison between Horizontal-Axis and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

Chapter 10

Acceptability, Environmental and Social Aspects of Wind Energy


Environmental Aspects

Gas Emissions : Wind and Other Energy Sources

Public Attitude in Different Countries

Social Impact

Wind Power and Traditional Power Sources

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