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1. How We Use the Wind Today

Wind Power Plants, 3: What’s in a Name?, 4; Wind Power Plant Arrays, 4 • Distributed Wind, 7: Urban and Village Wind, 7; End of the Line and Beyond, 8 • Specialty Applications, 10 • Electric Vehicle Charging, 10 • Heating, 11, Sacred Winds, 12 • Pumping Water, 13

2. How to Use This Book

How This Book Is Organized, 15 • Using www.wind-works.org, 16 • Nomenclature: What Are We Talking About?, 17: Wind Machine and Wind Turbine, 17; Power and Energy: There Is a Difference, 18; Watt’s More, 19 • Equations: They’re Informa­tive, 19 • False Precision—How to Avoid It, 19 • How Wind Energy for the Rest of Us Differs from Wind Power (2004), 20 • Units: Yes, Metrics Too, 21 • Units of Measurement, 21; Size: It’s All Relative, 21, Wind Energy Workshops, 24, Attention: The Wind Industry is Dynamic, 25; Some Do’s and Don'ts on Investing in Wind Energy, 26

3. Where It All Began

How Far We’ve Come, 28 • In the Beginning, 29: James Blyth, 29; Duc de Feltre, 30; Brush Dynamo, 31; Dead Ends, 32; The Danish Edison, 32 • The Interwar Years, 35: First Interconnected Wind Turbine, 35; Wind Meets Aviation, 36; Wind Chargers, 37 • War Years, 37: Smith-Putnam, 38; Ventimotor and the Third Reich, 38; Denmark and F.L. Smidth, 40; Wind Technology Known Well by Mid-1950s, 42 • Postwar Years, 42: Germany’s Allgaier, 42; Denmark’s Johannes Juul, 44; Stall Regulation and High Power Ratings, 45; Wind Experimentation Elsewhere, 47

4. The Great Wind Revival

Why the History of Modern Wind Energy is Important, 52 • Large Turbines from the Top Down, 52: Bringing NASA Down to Earth, 52; Germany’s Growian, 57; Going Beyond Juul—Denmark, 58 • Denmark’s Rebels, 59; When My Role Began, 60; Danish Carpen­ter, 60; Tvindkraft: The Giant That Shook the World, 61; SmedemestermØlle: The Black­smith’s Turbine, 64; Blades That Set the Industry in Motion, 64; The Danish Concept, 68 • The California Wind Rush, 68 • American Designs of the Early 1980s, 69: Down­wind Dominant, 69; Lightweights in a Heavyweight Environment, 70; US Windpow­er, 72; Enertech’s E44, 74; Mehrkam, 74; Wind Energy and the Aerospace Arts, 75; An Aerospace Success Story: Bergey Windpower, 75 • Bottom-Up Delivered, 77 • Boom and Bust Survivors, 77; South of the Border (Enercon), 78 • Right Product, Right Place, Right Time, 78 • Wind Turbine Owners’ Association, 78 • Design Standards, 80 • Beginning of the Modern Era, 81

5. What Works and What Doesn’t

Orientation, 84: Passive Yaw, 85; Tail Vanes, 85; Active Yaw, 87 • Lift and Drag, 87 • Aerodynamics, 89: Apparent Wind and the Angle of Attack, 90; Twist and Taper, 91; Solidity, 93; Betz’s Limit, 94; Tip-Speed Ratio, 94; Blade Number, 95; One-Blade Wind Turbines, 96; Self-Starting, 100 • Blade Materials, 101: Tip Vanes and Winglets, 101; Wood, 102; Metal, 102; Fiberglass, 104 • Hubs, 105 • Drivetrains, 106: Small Turbines, 108; Medium-size Turbines, 110; Large Turbines, 111; Other Forms of Transmission, 113 • Generators, 114: Permenant Permenant Magnets?, 115; Alternators, 116; Air-gap or Axial-Flux Generators, 117; Variable- or Constant-Speed Operation, 118; Induction (Asynchronous) Generators, 119; Dual Generators or Dual Windings, 120 • Overspeed Control, 121; Horizontal Furling, 123; Vertical Furling, 124; Coning, 125; Changing Blade Pitch, 126; Aerodynamic Stall, 129; Mechanical Brakes, 130; Aerodynamic Brakes, 131 • Putting It All Together, 134: Small Turbines, 134; Large Turbines, 135; Dynamic Breaking: Is it Now Enough?, 135

6. Vertical-Axis and Darrieus Wind Turbines

Lift and Drag, 138; My Take on VAWTS, 138 • Blade Number, 139 • Towers, 140; Beware VAWT Resources on the Web, 141 • Φ-Configuration Darrieus Development, 142: Vestas’s Cantilevered Bi-blade Darrieus, 143; DAF-Indal, 143; Alcoa’s VAWT, 146; FloWind and The World’s Most Successful Darrieus, 147; Éole, 151 • H-Config­uration or Straight-Blade Darrieus, 151: McDonnell Aircraft’s Giromill, 153; Pinson Cycloturbine, 154; Mike Bergey, 155 • Fixed-Pitch H-Rotor VAWTs, 155: Musgrove Variable-Geometry VAWT, 156; Cleanfield, 157; Mariah Windspire, 159; Helical Wind Turbines, 160; Those Who Don’t Build VAWTs, 162 • VAWT Revival: Not Likely to Continue, 163; Poor Comparison Between Small VAWT and Small HAWT, 163 • Claims and Counterclaims, 164; Omnidirectional, 164; Simpler, 165; More Reliable, 165; Less Costly, 165; More Powerful, 165; Monsieur Darrieus and His Wind Turbines, 166; More Efficient, 166; More Cost Effective, 166; Safe for Birds, 167; Less Noisy, 167 • VAWT Design Characteristics, 167: Efficiency and Performance, 168; Stall Control and Overspeed Protection, 169; Self-Starting, 170; Fatigue, 170; Guyed Darrieus, 170 • VAWTs Now Marginal, 170 • Certification to Minimum Testing Standards, 171 • Conspiracy against VAWTs, 171; Debunking Pyramidal Power and Magical Mag-Wind, 172

7. Novel Wind Systems

Advice for Inventors of New Wind Turbines and For Everyone Else As Well, 176 • Ducted or Augmented Turbines, 176: Enflo, 177; Eléna 30: Will They Ever Learn?, 178; New Zealand’s Vortec 7, 179; Vortec 7 Promoters on Gipe’s Criticism, 179; FloDesign (Ogin), 180; Warning: Rebranding DAWTs, 181; Better Than Betz?, 182 • Airborne Wind Energy Systems (Kites), 183; Mike Barnard on Wind Technology Red Flags, 184 • Wind Ships, 185: Traction Kites, 186; Flettner Rotors, 187; Enercon’s E-Ship 1, 188 • The Take­away, 190

8. Silent Wind Revolution

What Is a Wind Turbine?, 192 • Generator Ratings, 192 • Swept Area Trumps Generator Ratings, 192 • Metrics of Productivity, 193 • Measures of Relative Swept Area, 194 • Historical Abuse of Power Ratings, 195 • Wind Turbine Design and Wind Regimes, 196 • Small and Medium-Size Turbines , 197; Case Study Germa­ny: New Wind Turbines Expand the Wind Resource, 198 • Specific Capacity and Capacity Factor (Full-Load Hours), 199; Relationship Between Capacity Factor, Yield, and Full-Load, 200 • Why All This Is Important, 201

9. Towers

Height, 203; Stratospheric Heights, 205 • Buckling Strength, 205; Drag Force and Thrust, 206; Rocking and Rolling with Wind, 206 • Tower Types, 207: Freestanding Towers, 207; Guyed Towers, 212 • Rooftop Mounting, 215; Rooftop Wind in Action, 217 • Uncon­ventional Towers, 218: Silos, 218; Farm Windmill Towers, 218; Steel Pipe, 218; Wood Towers, 218; Tripod Tower and Platform, 220 • Other Considerations, 221: Aesthet­ics, 221; Space, 221; Maintenance on Small Wind Turbines, 222; Ease of Installation for Small Wind Turbines, 222; Access to Large Wind Turbines, 222

10. Measuring the Wind

Wind: What Is It?, 226; Wind Speed Units, 228 • Wind Speed and Time, 228 • Power in the Wind, 229: The Beaufort Scale, 230; Wind Speed Notation, 231; Power Density, 231; International Standard Atmosphere, 232; Air Density, 232; Air Density, 233; Swept Area, 234; Wind Speed, 234; Speed Distributions, 235; Frequency Distributions, 237 • Wind Speed, Power, and Height, 238; Lograithmic Model of Wind Shear, 239; The Wind Shear Exponent α, 241; The Nocturnal Jet, 242 • Published Wind Data, 242; Calculating the Wind Shear Exponent (α), 243; Online Wind Resources and Wind Calculators, 244 • Survey­ing the Wind at Your Site, 244: Estimating the Height of Obstructions, 246; Measuring Instruments, 246; Anemometer Towers, 247; Survey Duration, 248; North American Wind Resource Maps, 249; Data Analysis, 250

11. Estimating Performance

Swept Area Method, 252: Small Wind Turbines, 253; Calculating Swept Area, 255; Large Wind Turbines, 256; Annual Yield by IEC Class, 257; Swept Area Rules of Thumb, 257; Power Curve Nomenclature, 258 • Power Curve Method, 258: The Method of Bins, 259; Avoid Average Speed Confusion, 259; Large Turbine Power Curve, 260 • Manufacturers’ Estimates, 261; Web-Based Calculators of AEP, 262 • Wind Power Plant Losses, 262 • Estimating Fleet Performance, 262 • Putting It All Together, 263

12. Off-the-Grid Power Systems

Hybrids, 266: Tale of Two Cities, 267 Reducing Demand, 267; AC and DC Systems, 269; Cutting Consumption, 269; Sizing, 270; Micro Hybrid Power Systems, 272; Inverters, 272; Batteries, 273; US Solar and Wind Data, 273; Cabin-Sized Power System, 274; Backup Generators, 275; Household-Sized Hybred Power System, 275 • Stand-Alone Economics, 276 • Other Stand-Alone Power Systems, 276: Telecommunications, 276; Village Electrification, 277; Village Self-Reliance, 278; Wind-Diesel Twinning, 278

13. Interconnection and Grid Integration

Models of Interconnection, 282; Breaking Free From Net Metering, 283 • Interconnec­tion Technology, 283: Induction or Asynchronous Generators, 285; Electronic Invert­ers, 285 • Power Quality and Safety, 286: Power Factor, 288; Voltage Flicker, 289; Harmonics, 290 • Net Metering, 290 • Degree of Self-Use, 291 • Dealing with the Utility, 291 • Distributed Generation, 292 • Grid Integration, 293: Wind’s Variabil­ity, 294; Capacity Credit, 296; Balancing Cost, 297; Penetration, 298; It’s All in the Mix, 298; Storage, 299

14. Pumping Waters

Windmills That Won the West, 301 • Mechanical Wind Pumps, 303: Pumping Head, 304 • Estimating Farm Windmill Pumping Capacity, 305 • Counterbalanc­ing for Wind Pumps, 307 • Farm Windmill Conversion?, 308; Electrical Wind Pumps, 308 • Storage, 310 • Irrigation and Drainage, 312 • Wind Pump Heritage, 313

15. Siting and Environmental Concerns

Antiwind Groups, 316 • Tower Placement, 317: Exposure and Turbulence, 318; Power Cable Routing, 319; Wind Turbine Noise: Rumors, Gossip, Lies, and Far-Fetched Stories, 320 • Planning Permission, 322 • Building Permit, 322 • Public Safety, 325: Falling Blades, 325; Falling Ice, 326; Attractive Nuisance, 326; Height Restrictions on Small Turbines, 327; Aviation Obstruction Marking, 327; Safety Setbacks, 328 • Noise, 331: Decibels, 332; Weighting Scales, 333; Exceedance Levels, 333; Noise Propagation Conspiracy?, 334; Noise Propagation, 334; Ambient Noise, 335; Will It Be Heard?, 335, Community Noise Standards, 336; Sound Power Levels, 337; Wind Turbine Noise, 338; Estimating Noise Levels, 340; Lowering Wind Turbine Noise, 341; Noise Annoyance, 342; Source of Small Turbine Noise, 343; Noise, Health, and Safety, 344; Noise and Public Health, 344; Conse­quences, 345; Be Considerate, 345 • Television and Radio Interference, 346 • Shadow Flicker, 346 • Shadow Flicker, 347 • Disco Effect, 347 • Birds and Bats, 348: Pre- and Postconstruction Surveys, 351; Bats, 351; No Free Lunch, 352 • Property Values, 352 • Land Area Required, 354: Land Area Occupied, 354; Land Area Used, 355 • Energy Balance and Energy Return on Energy Invested, 356 • Emissions of CO2 Equivalent Gases, 357 • Water Consumption, 358 • Removal Bonds, 358; Replacing the Old with the New, 359 • Aesthetics Design Summary, 360; Aesthetics, 360: Provide Visual Unifor­mity, 361; Remove Headless Horsemen, 361; Use Open Spacing, 361; Avoid Billboards and Logos, 361; Bury Power Lines, 362; Always Dress Properly, 362; Control Erosion and Promptly Revegetate Sites, 363; Harmonize Ancillary Structures, 363; Keep Sites Tidy, 364; Inform the Public, 364; Small Turbines, 365 • Compatible Land Uses, 365; Will It Be Seen?, 366

16. Installation and Dismantling

Thoughts on Doing it Yourself, 374 • Parts Control, 375 • Foundations and Anchors, 375; Anchors, 376; Working with Concrete, 376; Guyed Towers, 378; Freestanding Towers, 380; Novel Foundations, 380 • Assembly and Erection of Guyed Towers, 381; Guy Cables, 381; Using a Crane, 384; Using a Gin Pole, 384 • Freestanding Towers: Assembly and Erection, 385: Tubular Towers, 387 • Tilt-Up Towers: Assem­bly and Erection, 388: Tilt-Up Guyed Towers, 390; Griphoists, 391 • Wiring, 394: Up-Tower Block Connectors For Micro Turbines, 395; Aboveground and Buried Cable, 396; Strain Relief of Tower Conductors, 396; Conductors and Conductor Sizing, 397; Junc­tion or J-Boxes, 400; Conduit Fill, 400; Surge Protection, 400; Grounding Nets, 401; Addi­tional Notes on Wiring, 401 • Decommissioning and Dismantling, 402 • Erecting a Micro Turbine with a Griphoist, 403; Erecting a Household-Size Turbine with Crane, 406; Erecting a Large Turbine, 408; Dismantling a Large Wind Turbine: Windkraft Diemarden, 412

17. Safety

Fatal Accidents, 415 • Wind’s Mortality Rate, 417; Deaths in Wind Energy Database, 417 • Hazards, 418: Falls, 418; Spinning Rotors, 419; Terry Mehrkam Thrown to His Death, 419; Electrical, 421; Construction, 421; Analysis, 422 • Tower Safety and Fall Protec­tion, 422; Positioning Belts and Full-Body Harnesses, 422; Lanyards, Lifelines, and Anchorages, 424; Snap Hooks, Carabiners, and Slings, 425; Fall-Arresting Systems, 426 • Work Platforms, 427; Tower Work and Do-It-Yourselfers, 427 • Ladders, 429; Dynamic Braking or Stop Switches for Small Wind Turbines, 430 • More Tower Tips, 430 • Steen Aagaard’s Crippling Fall, 432 • Blade Root Doors, 433 • Small Turbine Electrical Safety, 433 • Loss Prevention, 435

18. Operation and Maintenance

Small Wind Turbine First Rotation, 438: Interconnected Wind Systems, 438; Battery-Charging Wind Systems, 439 • Monitoring Performance, 439; Small Wind Turbines, 440 • Maintenance, 440: Small Wind Turbines, 440; Balance of Remote Systems, 442; Large Wind Turbines, 443 • Cost of Operations and Maintenance, 446: Small Wind Turbines, 446; Large Wind Turbines, 447

19. Investing in Wind Energy

Power Ratings and Cost Effectiveness, 449: Fantasy Wind Turbines: If It’s Too Good to Be True. . . or How to Spot Scams, Frauds, and Flakes, 451; Efficiency or Cost Effectiveness, 452; Measures of Cost Effectiveness, 452 • Shysters and Bozos, 454; Small Wind Turbine: Testing and Standards, 454: Standardized Tests, 455; Certification and Labeling, 456; Small Wind Turbine Certification, 457 • Buying a Small Wind Turbine for the Home, 458; Controls, 459; Operational History, 459; A Small Wind System Is Much More Than a Wind Turbine, 459; Product Specifications, 460; Evaluating Vendors, 461; Ventilators and Squirrels in a Cage, 461; Contracts and Warranties, 462; What to Expect, 462 • Financial and Economic Models, 463: Cost of Energy, 463; Payback, 464; Cash-Flow Models, 464; Profitability Index Method, 464 • Economic Factors, 465: Installed Cost, 465; Subsidies and Incentives, 465; US Federal Tax Credits, 466; Paying for Performance, 466; Cost of Capital, 467; Annual Reoccurring Costs, 467; Wind Turbine Envy and Land Lease Pooling, 469; Taxes, 470; Revenue, 470 • Putting It All Together, 474: Simplified Cash Flow: Large Turbine, 474; Tariff Calculation: Large Turbine, 475 • Tariff Calculation: Small Commercial Turbine, 476

20. Community Wind

The Third Way, 479 • Community Wind, 480 • What Is Community Wind?, 481 • Why Community Wind?, 482: Greater Acceptance, 483; Greater Economic Benefits, 483 • Cooperative and Mutual Investment, 484 • Characteristics of Community Wind, 485 • Denmark’s Fællesmølle and Vindmøllelaug, 486: Lynetten Vindmølle­laug, 487; Middelgrunden Vindmølleaug, 488; Hvidovre Vindmøllelaug, 488 • Dutch Cooperatives, 488 • Germany’s Electricity Rebels, 489; Full Speed Ahead Says Friends of the Earth Germany: Wind Energy Is the Workhorse of the Energy Transition, 490; Friedrich-Wil­helm-Lübke-Koog, 491; Nordfriesland: Germany’s Community Wind Capital and an Electric­ity Rebel Stronghold, 494; Saterland Bürgerbeteiligung, 496; German Genossenschaft or Cooperatives, 496 • Community Wind in Britain, 497: Baywind, 497; Westmill Wind Farm, 497 • Community Power Down Under, 498 • Community Wind in North America, 499: Community Wind North American Sources of Information, 500; Ontario, 500; Nova Scotia, 503; Massachusetts, 504; Minnesota, 505; Nevada, Iowa, 506 • Who Owns the Wind?, 507 • What’s Required to Make Community Wind Happen, 508

21. The Challenge

Pitfalls to Avoid, 511: The Lure of Panaceas, 511; Offshore and Near Shore Wind, 512; Public Relations Puffery, 513; Too Cheap to Meter, 513 • The North American Chal­lenge, 513: North American Consumption, 514; Swept Area Needed to Meet Consump­tion, 514 • The Challenge, 515: Offsetting Fossil-Fuel-Fired Generation, 515; Offsetting Oil in Passenger Vehicle Transport with EVs, 516; Manufacturing Capacity, 517; Land Area Required, 518; 100% from Renewables, 518; 100% Renewable Vision Building: Trend Toward New Targets of 100% Renewable Electricity—And Higher, 519; Onshore Wind Returns Three Times More Usable Energy in Transportation Than Investment in Oil, 520; Affordable, 520; Doable, 521 • Electricity Feed Laws, 521: Small Wind Tariff, 523; Differentiated Tariffs for Distributed Wind, 524 • Energy for Life: The Pursuit of an Ethical Energy Policy, 525

Appendix

Constants and Conversions, 529 • Scale of Energy Equivalents, 531 • Scale of Equivalent Power, 531 • Battelle Wind Power Density Classes, 532 • American Wire Gauge to Metric Conversion, 532 • Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs), 533 • Government-Sponsored or Affiliated Laboratories, 534 • Websites, 534 • Electron­ic Forums on Small Wind Turbines, 534 • Workshops, 534 • Community Wind Organizations, 535 • Community-Owned Projects Mentioned, 535: Australia, 535; Canada, 535; Europe, 535; USA, 535 • Prowind Groups, 536 • Historical Sites and Museums, 536; Museums with Wind Exhibits, 536; Open-Air Museums: North America, 536; Open-Air Museums: Europe, 536; Open-Air Museums: Elsewhere, 537 • History of Wind Power Additional Sources, 537: North American Focus, 537; International Focus, 538 • Periodicals, 538

Selected Sources

Chapter 3: Where It All Began and Chapter 4: The Great Wind Revival, 539 • Chapter 6: Vertical-Axis and Darrieus Wind Turbines, 540 • Chapter 7: Novel Wind Systems, 541 • Chapter 8: Silent Wind Revolution, 541 • Chapter 9: Towers, 542 • Chapter 10: Measuring the Wind, 542 • Chapter 11: Estimating Performance, 542 • Chapter 12: Off-the-Grid Power Systems, 542 • Chapter 13: Interconnection and Grid Integration, 542 • Chapter 14: Pumping Water, 543 • Chapter 15: Siting and Environmental Concerns, 543 • Chapter 17: Safety, 545 • Chapter 18: Operation and Maintenance, 545 • Chapter 19: Investing in Wind Energy, 545 • Chapter 20: Community Wind, 545 • Chapter 21: The Challenge, 546

Annotated Bibliography

Aesthetics and Noise, 547 • Modern Wind Energy History, 547 • Large Wind Turbines, 548 • Small Wind Turbines, 549 • Rigging, 549

 

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