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Illustrations in Wind Energy Comes of Age

  • Figure I-1. Wind turbines in juxtaposition to conventional power plants.
  • Figure 1-1. World Wind Generation.
  • Figure 1-2. North American Wind Capacity.
  • Figure 1-3. European Wind Capacity.
  • Figure 1-4. Major Centers of Wind Generation.
  • Figure 1-5. New Installations.
  • Figure 1-6. North American and European Wind Generation.
  • Figure 1-7. Interconnected Applications.
  • Figure 1-8. Clusters.
  • Figure 1-9. Rectilinear Arrays.
  • Figure 1-10. Linear Arrays.
  • Figure 1-11. Ridgetop Arrays.
  • Figure 1-12. Models of Wind Development.
  • Figure 1-13. Small Wind Turbine.
  • Figure 1-14. Stand-Alone Wind Machines.
  • Figure 1-15. Nomadic Micro-Turbine.
  • Figure 1-16. Hybrid Power System.
  • Figure 1-17. End of the Line.
  • Figure 1-18. Pumping Water.
  • Figure 1-19. Wind-Assisted Irrigation.
  • Figure 1-20. Wind Furnace.
  • Figure 1-21. Windpowered Transportation.
  • Figure 1-22. California Wind Capacity.
  • Figure 1-23. European Wind Generation.
  • Figure 2-1. Wind turbine under test at Denmark's Risø National Laboratory.
  • Figure 2-2. Danish Wind Generation.
  • Figure 2-3. 1993 Specific Price.
  • Figure 3-1. Government R&D Expenditures.
  • Figure 3-2. Market Incentives.
  • Figure 3-3. Danish Wind Turbine Exports.
  • Figure 3-4. Smith-Putnam.
  • Figure 3-5. AWT. R. Lynette Assoc.'s 26-meter (85-foot) Advanced Wind Turbine undergoing tests near Tehachapi, Calif.
  • Figure 3-6. FloWind Darrieus.
  • Figure 3-7. Lift Translator.
  • Figure 4-1. Rotor Diameter and Swept Area.
  • Figure 4-2. Goliaths.
  • Figure 4-3. Commercial Derivatives.
  • Figure 4-4. Nibe Twins.
  • Figure 4-5. Tvind.
  • Figure 5-1. Persian Panemone.
  • Figure 5-2. English Post Mill.
  • Figure 5-3. Multiblade Farm Windmill.
  • Figure 5-4. Flint & Walling Star Zephyr.
  • Figure 5-5. Wincharger.
  • Figure 5-6. 1980s Jacobs.
  • Figure 5-7. Technology Pathways for Small Wind Turbines.
  • Figure 5-8. Furling.
  • Figure 5-9. Micro Turbine.
  • Figure 5-10. Bergey 1500, An Integrated, Direct-Drive Small Wind Turbine.
  • Figure 5-11. Specific Rotor & Nacelle Mass for Small Wind Turbines.
  • Figure 5-12. Production Economies.
  • Figure 6-1. Rayleigh Wind Speed Distribution.
  • Figure 6-2. Increase in Wind Speed with Height.
  • Figure 6-3. Increase in Wind Power with Height.
  • Figure 6-4. Typical First-Generation Danish Wind Turbine.
  • Figure 6-5. Increasing Size.
  • Figure 6-6. Relative Size.
  • Figure 6-7. Sample Power Curves for 500 kW Wind Turbines.
  • Figure 6-8. Fayette 95-IIS.
  • Figure 6-9. Power Curve and Annual Energy Output.
  • Figure 6-10. Typical Specific Yields.
  • Figure 6-11. Equivalent Capacity Factor.
  • Figure 6-12. Availability.
  • Figure 6-13. Specific Yield in California and Denmark.
  • Figure 6-14. Horizontal and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines.
  • Figure 6-15. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Configurations.
  • Figure 6-16. Experimental Three-Bladed Darrieus.
  • Figure 6-17. Bi-Blade Darrieus.
  • Figure 6-18. Technological Pathways for Medium-sized Darrieus Turbines.
  • Figure 6-19. Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Configurations.
  • Figure 6-20. Typical Second-Generation European Wind Turbine.
  • Figure 6-21. Technological Pathways for HAWTs.
  • Figure 6-22. Specific Rotor & Nacelle Mass.
  • Figure 6-23. Carter 300.
  • Figure 6-24. Carter Sr. Wind Eagle.
  • Figure 6-25. Storm Master.
  • Figure 6-26. Windtech.
  • Figure 6-27. ESI-54.
  • Figure 6-28. Integrated Drive Train.
  • Figure 6-29. First Generation Drive-Train.
  • Figure 6-30 U.S. Windpower 56-100.
  • Figure 6-31. Vestas V27.
  • Figure 6-32. Bonus Combi.
  • Figure 6-33. Bonus 450.
  • Figure 6-34. Ship or Bulkhead Frame.
  • Figure 6-35. Taper and Twist.
  • Figure 6-36. Airfoil.
  • Figure 6-37. V27 Blade.
  • Figure 6-38. Rotor Blade Mass.
  • Figure 6-39. Overspeed Control.
  • Figure 6-40. WEG MS-3.
  • Figure 6-41. Pitchable Blade Tips.
  • Figure 6-42. Variable Pitch Blade Tips.
  • Figure 6-43. Ailerons or Flaps.
  • Figure 6-44. Utility-Compatible Wind Machines.
  • Figure 6-45. Dual Generators.
  • Figure 6-46. U.S. Windpower 33M VS.
  • Figure 6-47. Servicing Enertech E-44 near Palm Springs, Calif.
  • Figure 7-1. Wind Power Plant Price.
  • Figure 7-2. Operation, Maintenance, and Fuel Costs.
  • Figure 7-3. Relative Cost of Wind Energy in California and Denmark.
  • Figure 7-4. Relative Installed Price by Rotor Swept Area.
  • Figure 7-5. Effect of Installed Cost on the Relative Cost of Energy.
  • Figure 7-6. Levelized Cost of Electricity.
  • Figure 8-1. Thyholmer Pilsner.
  • Figure 8-2. Windmill Tower.
  • Figure 8-3. Urban Windmill.
  • Figure 8-4. Acceptance of Wind Energy.
  • Figure 8-5. Information Kiosk.
  • Figure 8-6. Power Plant Acceptance.
  • Figure 8-7. Acceptance Distance.
  • Figure 8-8. Power Plant Preference.
  • Figure 8-9. Tandpibe-Velling Marsk.
  • Figure 8-10. Box on a Stick.
  • Figure 8-11. Aesthetically Pleasing Designs.
  • Figure 8-12. Lattice Tower Shape.
  • Figure 8-13. Wind Turbine sans Nose Cone.
  • Figure 8-14. Visual Influence Zones.
  • Figure 8-15. Visual Clutter.
  • Figure 8-16. Visual Density.
  • Figure 8-17. Linear Uniformity.
  • Figure 8-18. Visual Units.
  • Figure 8-19. Non-uniform Tower Height.
  • Figure 8-20. Iconography of North German Plain.
  • Figure 8-21. Ancillary Structures.
  • Figure 8-22. Visually pleasing hilltop array.
  • Figure 8-23. Scarring from Road Cut.
  • Figure 8-24. Rhyd y Groes, Wales.
  • Figure 8-25. Ebeltoft Harbor.
  • Figure 8-26. Cooperative Membership Meeting.
  • Figure 10-1. Noise Contours.
  • Figure 10-2. Noise Footprint.
  • Figure 10-3. Source Sound Power Level.
  • Figure 10-4. Treating Trailing Edge.
  • Figure 10-5. Bonus Tip Torpedo.
  • Figure 10-6. Projected Noise Level.
  • Figure 10-7. Projected Noise Level from Bonus Combi.
  • Figure 11-1. Land Disturbed.
  • Figure 11-2. McVentis.
  • Figure 11-3. Dike Path.
  • Figure 11-4. Lunch Break on Pacific Crest Trail.
  • Figure 11-5. Wind Energy and Cropland.
  • Figure 11-6. Delabole Hedgerows.
  • Figure 11-7. British Road Construction.
  • Figure 11-8. Farm Track.
  • Figure 11-9. Unnecessary Grading.
  • Figure 11-10. Pleasing Ridge-Top Array.
  • Figure 12-1. Tourism at Delabole.
  • Figure 12-2. School Group at Ebeltoft.
  • Figure 12-3. Tourism at Zaanse Schans.
  • Figure 13-1. Solar Energy in California.
  • Figure 14-1. U.S. Wind Energy Potential.
  • Figure 14-2. Fiberglass Flowers.
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