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Tables in Wind Energy Comes of Age

  • Table 1-1. Wind Turbines in California by Country of Origin
  • Table 1-2. Payment for Wind-generated Electricity in Germany
  • Table 2-1. Danish Historical Development
  • Table 3-2. Payment for Wind-generated Electricity in Denmark
  • Table 3.1. R&D and Market Incentives
  • Table 3.2. Historical Technology Development
  • Table 4.1. Big Machine Performance by Operating Hours
  • Table 4.2. European Big Turbine Program, Round Two
  • Table 5-1. Bloom and Decay of European or "Dutch" Windmills
  • Table 5-2. U.S. Installed Wind Capacity Through 1970
  • Table 5-3. Water-Pumping Windmills (Wind Pumps) Worldwide
  • Table 5-4. Technological Development
  • Table 5-5. Small Wind Turbines
  • Table 5-6. Operating Histories of Four Small Wind Turbines by Wisconsin
  • Power & Light Co.
  • Table 6-1. Effect of Speed Distribution on Wind Power Density for Sites with same Average Speed
  • Table 6-2. Annual Wind Power Density for Rayleigh Distribution
  • Table 6-3. Typical Surface Roughness Exponents for Power Law Method of Estimating Changes in Wind Speed with Height
  • Table 6-4. Changes in Wind Speed with Height for Selected DOE Candidate
  • Wind Turbine Sites
  • Table 6-5. Changes in Power Density with Height for Selected DOE Candidate Wind Turbine Sites
  • Table 6-6. Technology Development of Medium-Sized Wind Turbines
  • Table 6-7. Typical Medium-Sized Wind Turbine Ratings
  • Table 6-8. Annual Energy Output for 39 Meter, 500 kW Wind Turbine Using Power Curve
  • Table 6-19. Typical Specific Yields
  • Table 6-10. Danish 1992 Performance Summary
  • Table 6-11. Danish Tower Heights
  • Table 6-12. Performance of Selected American-Designed Wind Turbines
  • Table 6-13. Transmission Gear Ratio for Selected Turbines
  • Table 6-14. Tip Speed Ratios at Rated Power for Selected Turbines
  • Table 6-15. Reduction of Mass per Blade
  • Table 6-16. Generator Speed in rpm
  • Table 6-17. Typical Generating Hours for Rayleigh Distribution
  • Table 6-18. Percent Increase in Generation of Two-speed and Variable-Speed Wind Turbines over 300 kW Single-Speed Wind Turbines 33 meters in Diameter
  • Table 7-1. Example of Fixed Charge Rates
  • Table 7-2. Sample of Early 1980s Price of Wind Turbines in California
  • Table 7-3. Reported Wind Power Plant Price California Energy Commission in 1992 $/kW of Installed Capacity
  • Table 7-4. Typical Wind System Installed Cost
  • Table 7-5. Specific Installed Cost in Terms of Rated Capacity
  • Table 7-6. Ranking of Economic, Social, and Environmental Costs Highest to Lowest Cost
  • Table 7-7. European Cost of Capital for Wind Projects Early to mid 1990s
  • Table 8-1. Aesthetic Guidelines for Wind Plants
  • Table 9-1.Estimated Number of Birds Killed by Wind Turbines in Northern California
  • Table 10-1. Safety Setbacks
  • Table 10-2. Typical Sound Pressure Levels in dB(A)
  • Table 10-3. Decibel Addition
  • Table 10-4. Noise Limits in dB(A) of Sound Pressure Levels
  • Table 10-5. Community Response to Noise from Sources other than Wind Turbines
  • Table 10-6. Sound Power Level for Selected Wind Turbines
  • Table 11-1. Land Use Requirements for Coal-fired and Wind-driven Power
  • Plants to generate 6 TWh/y for 30 years, in hectares
  • Table 11-2. Density of Windmills and Medium-Sized Wind Turbines on the Landscape
  • Table 11-3. Comparative Land Use: Wind and Solar
  • Table 12-1. Energy Balance or Payback
  • Table 12-2. Average Emissions Factors for Power Generation in the United States
  • Table 12-3. Emissions Factors for New Power Plants (CEC)
  • Table 12-4. Emission Factors for Fuel Cycle (U.S. DOE)
  • Table 12-5. Typical Emission Benefits from Wind Energy
  • Table 12-6. Water Use
  • Table 12-7. Water Consumption by Power Plants (evaporative loss)
  • Table 12-8. Deaths from Electricity Generation Upper Bound Air Pollution Effect on Public Health
  • Table 12-9. Estimates of Death from Power Generation per Gigawatt-year
  • Table 12-10. Cost of Deaths from Coal-fired Electricity Generation
  • Table 12-11. Summary of External Effects of Energy Systems
  • Table 12-12. Social Costs and Benefits of Wind Energy in Germany
  • Table 12-13. Estimates of Externality Costs in 1990 Cents per kWh
  • Table 12-14. Emissions Offset by Trees
  • Table 12-15. Wind Industry Jobs in California and Denmark
  • Table 14-1. Battelle Wind Power Classes
  • Table 14-2. Array Spacing and Generation
  • Table 14-3. On-Shore Wind Energy Potential in the United States, Canada, and Europe after "Second Order" Environmental Exclusions
  • Table 14-4. Wind Generation and Electric Vehicles
  • Table 14-5. First-Generation Turbines in California
  • Table 14-5. Estimated Installed Cost of Rebuilt Wind Turbines from California
  • Table 14-6. Repowering California Wind Plants
  • Conversions
  • Energy Equivalence of Common Fuels
  • Scale of Equivalent Power
  • Scale of Equivalent Energy
  • Rayleigh Wind Speed Distribution For Annual Average Wind Speed in m/s
  • Rayleigh Wind Speed Distribution For Average Annual Wind Speed in mph
  • Estimated Annual Energy Output at hub height in thousand kWh/y for wind speed in m/s
  • Estimated Annual Energy Output at hub height in thousand kWh/y for wind speed in mph
  • Estimated Annual Energy Output for Battelle Wind Power Classes at 30 m (98 ft) Hub Height in Thousand kWh/yr*
  • Sound Power Level for Selected Wind Turbines
  • Historical Technology Development
  • Characteristics of Selected Small Wind Turbines
  • Characteristics of Selected Medium-Sized Wind Turbines
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