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Contents of Wind Power (2004)

1. Introduction

[side bar] Wind Energy Workshops

How This Book is Organized

Nomenclature--What Are We Talking About?

Wind Machines

Power and Energy--There Is a Difference

Watt's More

[side bar] What's New in This Version of Wind Power

Levers, Moment Arms, and Torque

Equations--They're Informative

False Precision--How To Avoid It

Units--Yes, Metrics Too

Size--It's All Relative

2. Applications--How To Use The Wind

Generating Power at Remote Sites

Hybrids

Low-Power Applications

Village Electrification

Interconnecting with the Utility

[side bar] Lighting the Way

How It Works

[sidebar] Public-Spirited

Farming the Wind

Heating

Water Pumping

3. Measuring the Wind

Wind--What is It?

Wind Speed and Time

[side bar] Wind Speed Units

[side bar] Beaufort Scale

[Side bar] Wind Speed Notation

Power in the Wind

[side bar] Power Density

Air Density

[Side bar] Standard Atmosphere

Swept Area

Wind Speed and Speed Distributions

[side bar] Frequency Distributions

Wind Speed, Power and Height

Wind shear Exponent

[side bar] Nocturnal Jet

[site bar] Logarithmic Model of Wind Shear

[side bar] The Wind Shear Exponent (a)

[Side bar] Calculating the Wind Shear Exponent (a)

Published Wind Data

[side bar] Sources of Wind Data in the USA

Surveying Your Site

[side bar] Estimating the Height of Obstructions

Measuring Instruments

Anemometer Towers

Survey Duration

Data Analysis

Another Option--Install a Small Wind Turbine

4. Estimating Output--How Much To Expect

Swept Area Method

Small Wind Turbines

[side bar] Calculating Swept Area

[side bar] Swept Area Rules of Thumb

Medium Size Wind Turbines

Power Curve Method

[side bar] Avoid Average Speed Confusion

[side bar] Power Curve Nomenclature

Manufacturers' Estimates

[side bar] Wind Plant Losses

The Method of Bins

Performance Ratings

Efficiency

5. Economics--Does Wind Pay?

Cost of Energy and Payback

Economic Factors

Residential Economics

[side bar] Understanding Table 5-1

Farm and Business Economics

[side bar] Understanding Table 5-2

[side bar] Taking a Gamble: Schafer Systems

Risks

Cost-Effectiveness

6. Evaluating the Technology--What Works and What Doesn't

Orientation

Vertical Axis

Horizontal Axis

[side bar] Tail Vanes

Passive Yaw

Active Yaw

[sidebar] Ducted or Augmented Turbines

Lift and Drag

Aerodynamics

Apparent Wind and the Angle of Attack

Twist and Taper

Solidity

Betz's Limit

[side bar] One-Bladed Wind Turbines

Blade Number

Self Starting

[sidebar] Tip Vanes and Tip Torpedoes

Blades

Wood

Metal

Fiberglass

Hubs

Drive Trains

Generators

[sidebar] Permanent Permanent Magnets?

Alternators

[sidebar] Air-Gap Generators

Variable- or Constant-Speed Operation

Induction (Asynchronous) Generators

Dual Generators

Rotor Controls

Horizontal Furling

Vertical Furling

Coning

Changing Blade Pitch

Pitch to Feather

Pitch to Stall

Aerodynamic Stall

Mechanical Brakes

Aerodynamic Brakes

Putting It All Together

Small Turbines

Medium-Sized Turbines

7. Towers

Height

[side bar] Stratospheric Heights

Buckling Strength

[side bar] Drag Force and Thrust

Tower Types

Free-Standing Towers

Tubular Towers

Guyed Towers

Novel Towers

Rooftop Mounting

Silos

Trees

Farm Windmill Towers

Wood Poles

Steel Pipe

Concrete

Other Considerations

Space

Maintenance

Ease of Installation

Tower Selection

8. Cutting Costs--Not Corners

Building a Small Turbine Yourself

[side bar] DIY Brake-Drum Windmill

Smedemesterm(oe)lle

 

Buying a Used Wind Turbine

[side bar] Secondhand Wind

Used Windchargers

Used 1970s Machines

Used California Turbines

[side bar] California Wind Turbines

Danish and American Designs

Lightweight U.S. Designs

What Are They Worth?

Jacobs

Windmatic 15S--A Workhorse

[side bar] Dutch Valley Produce

Limitations of California Turbines

Used Turbines in Europe

Caveat Emptor (Buyer Beware)

[side bar] The Spirit of Adventure

Assembling a Kit

Working Together

Cooperatives--The Danish Approach

[side bar] Kennermerwind

[side bar] SydThy Kabellaug

Cooperative Net Billing

Buying Clubs

Wind Plant Coops

9. Buying a Wind System

Choosing a Product

[side bar] Standard Power Rating

[side bar] Much More than the Turbine

Standardized Tests

Operational History

Product Specifications

Manuals

Maintenance

Controls

Robustness

Intangibles

Evaluating Vendors

[side bar] Ventilators and Squirrels in a Cage

Manufacturers

Dealers

What to Expect

[side bar] Some Does and Don'ts

Contracts and Warranties

Case Studies

Cappy Reece

Art & Maxine Cook

10. Interconnection with the Utility

PURPA in the USA

Practical Application of PURPA

Net-Metering

[side bar] Wind Without Limits

Electricity Feed Laws & Quotas

[side bar] Feed Laws Deliver Renewables

Danish Feed Law

German Feed Law

French Feed Law

Feed Laws Elsewhere

Quotas

Power Quality and Safety

Power Factor

Voltage Flicker

Harmonics

Dealing with the Utility

[side bar] Aussie Built-Aussie Operated

Sizing--What's Right for You

Dump Loads

11. Off-the-Grid Power Systems

Hybrids

[side bar] Tale of Two Cities

Reducing Demand

[side bar] Cutting Consumption

AC and DC Systems

Sizing

[side bar] U.S. Solar & Wind Data

[side bar] Micro Hybrid Power System

[side bar] Cabin-size Hybrid Power System

[side bar] Household-size Hybrid Power System

Inverters

Batteries

Backup Generators

Utility Backup

Stand-Alone Economics

Other Stand-Alone Power Systems

Telecommunications

[side bar] Village Self Reliance

Village Electrification

12. Pumping Water

Windmills that Won the West

[side bar] Dempster Still Pumping

Mechanical Wind Pumps

Pumping Head

Estimating Farm Windmill Pumping Capacity

New Technology for Mechanical Wind Pumps

[side bar] Farm Windmill Conversion?

Electrical Wind Pumps

[side bar] Wind Pumping Research

Estimating Water Use

Storage

Irrigation

Wind Pump Renaissance

13. Siting

Physical Restrictions

Exposure and Turbulence

Power Cable Routing

Institutional Restrictions

[side bar] Property Values

Planning Permission

Building Permits

Height Restrictions

Obstruction Marking

Public Safety

Falling Blades

Falling Ice

Attractive Nuisance

Aesthetics

Medium-Size Turbines

Small Turbines

[side bar] Anti-Wind Groups

Noise

Decibels

Weighting Scales

Exceedance Levels

Noise Propagation

[side bar] Will it be Heard?

Ambient Noise

Community Noise Standards

Sound Power Levels

[side bar] Sources of Small Turbine Noise

Lowering Wind Turbine Noise

Consequences

Consideration

TV and Radio Interference

Shadow Flicker and the Disco Effect

Birds

Case Studies

14. Installation

[side bar] Thoughts on Doing It Yourself

Parts Control

Foundations and Anchors

Anchors

Working with Concrete

Guyed Towers

Free-Standing Towers

Novel Foundations

Assembly and Erection of Guyed Towers

Guy Cables

[side bar] Wire Rope Clips & Thimbles

Using a Crane

Using a Gin Pole

[side bar] Installation of Household-size Turbine with Crane

Free-Standing Towers--Assembly and Erection

Tubular Towers

[side bar] Installation of Medium-size Wind Turbine

Tilt-Up Towers--Assembly and Erection

Tilt-Up Guyed Towers

[side bar] Sample Tool List for Micro Turbine

[side bar] Installation of Micro Turbine with Griphoist

Griphoists

Wiring

[side bar] Up Tower Connectors for Micro Turbines

Above Ground and Buried Wiring

Conductors and Conductor Sizing

[side bar] American Wire Gauge to Metric Conversion

Strain Relief of Tower Conductors

Conduit Fill

[side bar] Junction or J-Boxes

Surge Protection

[side bar] Ground Net

Additional Notes on Wiring

15. Operation, Performance, and Maintenance

Small Wind Turbine "First Rotation"

Interconnected Wind Systems

Battery-Charging Wind Systems

Monitoring Performance

Small Wind Turbines

[side bar] Reading a Kilowatt-hour Meter

Maintenance

Small Turbines

[side bar] Falkland Islands

Balance of Remote Systems

Medium-size Wind Turbines

Tvindkraft

[side bar] Bushland Enertech

Blade and Tower Cleaning

Painting

Cost of Maintenance

Small Wind Turbines

Medium-size Wind Turbines

Life Expectancy

16. Safety

Fatal Accidents

[side bar] Terry Mehrkam

Hazards

Falls

Spinning Rotors

[side bar] Dynamic Braking of Small Turbines

Electrical

Construction

Analysis

Tower Safety and Climbing Gear

Work Belts and Full-Body Harnesses

Lanyards and Anchorages

Snap Hooks, Carabiners, and Slings

Fall-Arresting Systems

Work Platforms

[side bar] Tower Work and Do-it-Yourselfers

Ladders

More Tower Tips

[side bar] Steen Aagaard's Crippling Fall

Small Turbine Electrical Safety

Batteries

Rope and Cable

Pulleys

Winches and Hoists for Small Wind Turbines

Loss Prevention

17. Looking to the Future

Expanded Applications

Distributed Wind

Community Wind

[side bar] MinWind--Farmer-Owned

Offshore Wind

Electric Vehicle Charging

Better Technology

Small Wind Turbines

Medium-size and Larger Wind Turbines

Challenges Facing Wind

Bigger is Better

Green Power

Offshore

Environmental

Too Cheap to Meter

What's Needed

Owners' Associations

Making Wind Go Further

Restructuring the Grid

Fair Price for a High-Value Product

Energy for Life

18. Appendixes

Constants

Conversions

Scale of Energy Equivalents

Scale of Equivalent Power

Air Density Correction Spreadsheets

for Temperature

for Altitude

for Normal Lapse Rate (Standard Atmosphere)

for a Given Temperature and Elevation

Weibull Wind Speed Distribution

Rayleigh Wind Speed Distribution

Map of Wind Resources in the United States

Maps of World Wind Resources

Estimates of Annual Energy Output

Estimates of Water Pumping Capacity of Farm Windmills

Cash Flow Models

Non Governmental Organizations

Government-Sponsored Laboratories

Electronic Networks

WWW Sites

Workshops

International Wind Energy Consultants

Characteristics of Selected Small Wind Turbines

Small Wind Turbine Manufacturers

Characteristics of Selected Medium-Size Wind Turbines

Medium-Size Wind Turbine Manufacturers

Reconditioned and Used Wind Turbines

Mechanical Wind Pumps

Rotor Blades

Towers

Mail-Order Catalogs

Wind Measurement Devices

Wind Measurement Masts

Wind & Meteorological Data

Periodicals

Wind Turbine Market Surveys

Software

Anchors and Guying Hardware

Work Belts and Fall-Arresting Systems

Inverters

Batteries

Plans for Small Wind Turbines

Grip Hoists

Videos

Multilingual Beaufort Scale

Mulitlingual Lexicon

Bibliography

Rigging

Solar Photovoltaics

Wind Energy Technology in English

Modern Wind Energy History

Wind Resources and Siting

Aesthetics and Noise

Designing, Building, or Installing Your Own

Water Pumping

Wind Energy Technology In German

Wind Energy Technology In French

Wind Energy Spanish

Wind Energy In Swedish

19. Glossary of Wind Energy Terminology

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