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Tables in Wind Energy for the Rest of Us

The following are the tables found in Wind Energy for the Rest of Us.  Each entry includes the original Quattro Pro file, an Excel file, and an image file. Note that I work in Quattro Pro. The conversion to Excel isn't perfect, all formatting is lost, and there are functions unique to Quattro Pro that are not converted to Excel.

There are 118 tables in Wind Energy for the Rest of Us and the nomenclature used below may be slightly different than in the final book. In some cases, these are the raw tables with my notes and calculations. Some tables in the book are taken from individual tabs in a single spreadsheet. Thus, there are several references to a single spreadsheet in the list below. This isn't a mistake. This is intentional.


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2. How to Use This Book

Table 2-1. Wind Turbine Size Classes

Table 3-1. Comparison of Modern Wind Turbines with Traditional Windmills

Table 3-2. Technology Development of Commercial Wind Turbines

3. Where It All Began

Table 3-3. Wind-Electric Turbines at the Turn of the 19th Century

Table 3-4. Wind-Electric Turbines During the Interwar Years

Table 3-5. Wind-Electric Turbines During the War Years

Table 3-6. Early Danish Wind-Electric Turbines

Table 3-7. F.L. Smidth Performance

Table 3-8. Wind-Electric Turbines During the Post War Period

Table 3-9. Johannes Juul’s Bogø Prototype Production

4. The Great Wind Revival

Table 4-1. Historical Development of Large Wind Turbines (Sorted by Operating Hours)

Table 4-2. Wind Turbines Independently Developed in the Mid-1970 to early 1980s

Table 4-3. Specific Mass of Rotor and Nacelle Relative to Swept Area for Selected Turbines

5. What Works and What Doesn’t

Table 5-1. Tip Speeds and Tip-Speed Ratios of Selected Wind Turbines

Table 5-2. Nominal Generator Speed in rpm for Induction Generators

Table 5-3. Typical Generating Hours for Raleigh Distribution

6. Vertical-Axis and Darrieus Wind Turbines

Table 6-1. FloWind Darrieus (VAWTs) Characteristics

Table 6-2. Giromills’ Early VAWT Characterstics

Table 6-3. Selected Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Specific Mass

Table 6-4. Theoretical Annual Specific Yield

Comparison Between Small VAWT and Small HAWT

Darrieus's Wind Turbines

7. Novel Wind Systems

Table 7-1. DAWT Summary of Experimental Products

8. Silent Wind Revolution

Table 8-1. Sample Specific Power & Specific Area

Table 8-2. Specific Rated Capacity of Selected Wind Turbines in the 1980s

Table 8-3. IEC Large Wind Turbine Classes

Table 8-4. Specific Capacity and Specific Area of Large Wind Turbines: Example IEC Class I Turbines

Table 8-5. Specific Capacity and Specific Area of Large Wind Turbines: Example IEC Class II Turbines

Table 8-6. Specific Capacity and Specific Area of Large Wind Turbines: Example IEC Class III Turbines

German Wind Energy Potential on Land

Table 8-7. IEC Small Wind Turbine Classes

Table 8-8. Specific Capacity and Specific Area of Selected Small & Medium-Size Turbines

9. Towers

Table 9-1. Guy Anchor Radius for a Mini Wind Turbine

10. Measuring the Wind

Table 10-1. Effect of Speed Distribution on Wind Power Density for Sites with Same Average Speed

Comparison Between Tera Kora, CuraÇao and Helgoland, Germany

Table 10-3. Changes in Wind Speed and Power with Height for Selected DOE Wind Turbine Sites in the USA

Table sb-10.3. Surface Roughness Lengths and the Wind Shear Exponent α

Table 10-4. Griggs-Putnam Index of Deformity

11. Estimating Performance

Table 11-1. Estimated Annual Energy Production for Micro & Mini Wind Turbines

Table 11-2. Estimated Annual Energy Production for Household-Size Wind Turbines

Table 11-3. Estimated Annual Energy Production for Large Wind Turbines

Swept Area, Rotor Diameter, and Nominal Power Rules of Thumb

Table 11-4. Vestas V80 Power Curve and Annual Energy Production for a 7 m/s Site

Table 11-5. Table of Estimated AEP for Bergey Windpower’s Excel 6

Table 11-6. Danish Wind Turbine Yield for 2011

Table 11-7. Fleet-Wide Typical Yields (kWh/kW/yr)

12. Off-the-Grid Power Systems

Table 12-1. Residential Energy Consumption

Table 12-2. Return on Investment of Conservation Measures in an Off-the-Grid Power System

Micro Hybrid Power System

Cabin-Size Hybrid Power System

Household-size Hybrid Power System

13. Interconnection and Grid Integration

Table 13-1. Capacity Credit in California

Table 13-2. Regulation Cost of Resources in California 2003

Table 13-3. Estimated Cost of Variable Generation in Britain

14. Pumping Water

Table 14-1. Water-Pumping Windmills (Wind Pumps) Worldwide

Table 14-2. Friction Head in Iron Pipe

Table 14-3. Sample Calculation of Total Dynamic Head

Table 14-4. American Farm Windmill Pumping Capacity

Table 14-5. Approximate Daily Pumping Volume of American Farm Windmill in m3/day and gallons/day

Table 14-6. Approximate Wind-Electric Measured Pumping Rates in Texas Panhandle

15. Siting and Environmental Concerns

Table 15-1. Safety Setbacks for Selected California Counties 2006

Table 15-2. Municipal Wind Energy Setbacks in Alberta, Examples

Table 15-3. Setbacks used in Study of Onshore Wind Energy Potential by Germany's Umweltbundesamt

Table 15-4. Typical Sound Pressure Levels in dBA

Table 15-5. Selected Noise Limits

Table 15-6. Community Response to Noise from Sources Other Than Wind Turbines

Table 15-7. Comparison of Noise from Selected Small Wind Turbines

Table 15-8. Sound Power Level for Bergey Excel 6

Table 15-9. SWCC Estimated Sound Pressure Level from Selected Small Turbines

Table 15-10. Property Value Impact Studies Summary

Table 15-11. Land Area Required NREL 2009

Table 15-12. Summary of Land Area Occupied

Table 15-13. Sampling of Wind Turbine Energy Payback Studies

16. Installation and Dismantling

Table 16-1. Screw Anchors

Table 16-2. Griphoists

17. Safety

Table 17-1. Summary of Deaths in Wind Energy

Table 17-2. Deaths by Region

Table 17-3. Deaths by Size

Table 17-4. Summary of Occupational Mortality in Power Generation

18. Operation and Maintenance

Table 18-1. LBNL Operations & Maintenance Cost for Large Wind Turbines in Commercial Wind Plants

19. Investing in Wind Energy

Table 19-1. Installed Wind Project Relative Cost in the US: LBNL 2012

Table 19-2. Relative Costs for GE 1.6 MW Platform

Table 19-3. Representative Relative Installed Wind Turbine Costs

Table 19-4. Hypothetical Relative Costs for GE 1.6 MW Platform

Equipment Cost for Adding Micro Wind Turbine to Existing Off-Grid System

Table 19-5. Product Specifications for a Small Wind Turbine

Table 19-6. Sample Cost Estimate for a Large Wind Turbine Relative to Total Installed Cost (As a Percentage of Total Cost)

Table 19-7. Royalties & Land Rents for Wind Turbines as Percent of Gross Revenue (Sorted by Royalty Rate)

Table 19-8. Annual Reoccurring Costs as a Percentage of Installed Cost

Table 19-9. Bushland, Texas Enertech E44

Table 19-10. Sample Cash Flow for Single Large Wind Turbine in Commercial Application Before Tax

Table 19-11. Feed-in Tariff Calculation Using Chabot PI Method — Hypothetical Large Commercial Wind Turbone without ITC or Subsidies

Table 19-12. Sensitivity Analysis Feed-in Tariff Calculation Using Chabot PI Method Hypothetical Large Wind Turbine without Tax Credits or Subsidies in $/kWh

Table 19-13. Feed-in Tariff Calculation Using Chabot PI Method Hypothetical Small Commercial Wind Turbine without ITC or Subsidies

Table 19-14. Sensitivity Analysis Feed-in Tariff Calculation Using Chabot PI Method Hypothetical Small Commercial Wind Turbine without ITC or Subsidies in $/kWh

Table 19-15. Sensitivity Analysis Feed-in Tariff Calculation Using Chabot PI Method Hypothetical Small Commercial Wind Turbine with ITC in $/kWh

20. Community Wind

Table 20-1. Co-Op & Farmer-Owned Wind Turbines in Europe

Table 20-2. Ownership of Wind in Germany in 2010

Table 20-3. Economic Impact of Community Ownership Relative to Conventional Absentee Ownership NREL 2009

Density of Wind Generating Capacity in Schleswig-Holstein

Density of Wind Generating Capacity in Northwest Schleswig-Holstein

Table 20-4. Representative Shared Ownership Wind Projects

21. The Challenge

Table 21-1. North American Wind Energy Challenge: Eliminating Fossil-Fired Generation

Table 21-2. Energy Efficiency of Electric Vehicles

Table 21-3. North American Wind Energy Challenge: Passenger Vehicle Transport

Table 21-4. Wind Capacity Required in North America to Offset Thermal Generation and Light Vehicles

Table 21-5. North American Heavy Truck Manufacturing as Proxy for Large Wind Turbine Manufacturing

Table 21-6. Land Area Required in North America to Offset Thermal Generation and Light Vehicles

Energy Return on Capital Investment (EROCI)

Appendix

Constants and Conversions

Scale of Energy Equivalents

Scale of Equivalent Power

Battelle Classes of Wind Power Density

American Wire Gauge to Metric Cable Conversion & DC Resistance in Ohms

Table 10-3. Changes in Wind Speed and Power with Height for Selected DOE Wind Turbine Sites in the USA

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